When Emma Lazarus wrote The New Colossus in 1883 she may or may not have been aware that, 6,500 miles to the east in the Arabian Peninsula, the Al Saud were clashing with their bitter rivals, the al-Rashids from the city of Hayil. Things didn’t go well for the Al Saud and, consequently, they were driven from Ndaj into exile, eventually settling in Kuwait. It’s a fascinating story and perhaps Miss Lazarus would have agreed. Warring factions and power struggles aren’t unique to Islam. For centuries, bitter rivalries between the monarchical governments of Europe tormented the continent with near non-stop bloodshed. World War I destroyed the European monarchies as well as the Muslim Ottoman empire, and after the Second World War western states eventually coalesced under a new covenant. Rivalries persist to this day among NATO member states but we have, by in large, become more civil and sophisticated. It’s a cerebral and superficially amiable relationship but it works.